Now that your garden is up and growing, it is a good time to start thinking about pest control for your home vegetable garden. Patty Lucas and Richard Durham, Extension Specialists, UK Cooperative Extension Service provide the following information.
You can control pest problems, and perhaps prevent future difficulties, in your garden by doing some advance planning and following a few simple Integrated Pest Management practices. IPM promotes minimal pesticide use and emphasizes use of all available pest control methods including cultural, mechanical and biological practices to prevent pest problems.
Examples of the IPM approach include using plants with natural disease tolerance or resistance, using mulch to control weeds or row covers to prevent insect damage and using naturally occurring organisms such as lady beetles or praying mantis.
Sanitation is another good IPM practice. Keep your garden well groomed during active growth. Once you spot diseased plant material, remove it immediately to keep diseases from spreading. Also, promptly remove vegetable plants when they cease to be productive. Although you should clear out unproductive vegetable plants from the garden area, you can add this plant material to a compost pile.
Before you buy seeds, plants or fertilizer, start your garden off right by answering these questions.
Have you taken a soil sample to determine if soil fertility and acidity/alkalinity will meet plants nutrient requirements?
Soil test results will let you know how much fertilizer is required to provide plants with needed nutrients, while preventing excessive use that contributes to groundwater, stream and lake pollution. Plants that are stressed or weak from insufficient nutrients or a pH thats too low or too high are more susceptible to disease and cant readily tolerate insect damage. To give your plants a healthy start, take a soil test (from your Cooperative Extension Office) and apply the fertilizer and other amendments according to the recommendations.
Do you plant your garden crops in the same spot year after year?
Crop rotation can help prevent insect and disease build-ups. For example, potatoes, eggplant, tomatoes and peppers are subject to the same insect and disease problems. Therefore, none of these crops should be planted in the same location more than every three consecutive years. After three years, switch to a different crop like beans or corn. If you have limited garden space, plant some vegetable plants in containers such as large pots or half whisky barrels as a form of crop rotation.
Make a diagram of your garden each year to avoid planting the same or closely related crops in exactly the same spot too frequently.
How do you select a vegetable plant variety?
Whether you are planting corn or tomatoes, check to see that the variety you are planting has some disease resistance or tolerance. For example, select tomato varieties labeled VFN, as theyre resistant to Verticillium Wilt, Fusarium and root-knot nematodes. Whereas, a tomato variety leveled V is only resistant to Verticillium Wilt.
Do you buy the cheapest transplants?
When it comes to transplants, the best buys are the healthy ones. A healthy transplant was seeded at the right time, grown at the proper temperature and received adequate light and moisture. It will have a compact growth structure with very small distances between leaves. The leaves will be dark green, large and upright with no tendency to droop. Stems will be pencil thick and rigid.
Avoid transplants that are beginning to produce flowers or fruit. It might seem that buying a plant with blooms or fruit will give you a head start in the garden. However, plants trying to produce fruit or flowers are slow to develop the good root systems needed to support later fruit production. Never buy plants that have insects present or are showing disease symptoms.
Do you plan to use mulch in your garden?
Mulch helps prevent weeds that will decrease your gardens production by competing with the vegetable plants for water, nutrients and sunlight. In addition, some weeds harbor diseases and insects that attack vegetable plants. Mulch also helps conserve soil moisture.
Several types of commercial mulch are available, or you can use newspapers for the mulch. Start with five to eight layers, adding more layers as the newspapers decompose to prevent weed growth throughout the growing season. Be sure to use only newspapers printed with soy-based ink and avoid using the glossy inserts.
By following these guidelines, you should have nutritious, delicious vegetables ready for your table!
If you need more information or have other horticulture questions, please contact Kim Cowherd, Franklin County Extension Agent for Horticulture at firstname.lastname@example.org or call 695-9035. If you would like to sign up for the monthly Horticulture newsletter, please call the Extension office and let them know!